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How does a high pressure pump work?

20 May 2022Email

The following are some brief descriptions about the high-pressure washer pump. The pump is the heart of the operation of the high-pressure washer, so the quality of the pump affects the cleaning effect and service life of the machine.


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The core component of the pressurized water jet equipment is the high-pressure pump. Its main function is to turn the quantitative water into a high-pressure water flow, so that the water flow has a strong impact. Among them, there are various types of high-pressure pumps, such as high-pressure plunger pumps, high-pressure reciprocating pumps, high-pressure electric pressure test pumps and so on. Among them, piston pumps are the most common high-pressure pumps used in high-pressure cleaners. The main reason is that piston pumps have high operating efficiency and longer service life. The piston of the high-pressure pump is generally made of ceramics, which is not easy to be worn, so the service life is long.

The piston pump is through a fixed seal, a piston moves back and forth. The piston pump relies on the reciprocating motion of the piston, which makes the working volume of the pump chamber change periodically, and realizes the suction and discharge of liquid. Whereas plunger pumps have seals mounted on the plunger through a smooth cylinder wall. It mainly uses the reciprocating motion of the plunger in the pump cylinder to change the volume between the plunger and the pump wall, repeatedly sucking and discharging liquid and increasing its pressure. Plunger pumps generally have better initial use characteristics. Its advantages are high rated pressure, compact structure, high efficiency and convenient flow adjustment. However, its disadvantages are that it cannot operate under excessive pressure and has a short service life.

The water capacity of the pump depends on the speed of the pump, and the pump must make the same amount of water in and out. The water flow parameters of the piston pump are stable, that is, the water flow rate is constant regardless of the different pressures of the equipment. Therefore, if the nozzle or high-pressure pipe is blocked, it will cause the high-pressure pump to bear too much pressure. Therefore, devices such as pressure relief valves must be installed in the equipment system.

The most common cause of failure of high-pressure cleaners is usually not the pump. Pump failure is generally caused by wear of components or parts, such as wear of nozzle seals. Generally speaking, insufficient water intake in the pump is one of the main reasons for the failure of the pump in the early stage of use. Generally speaking, it is because the diameter of the water inlet pipe is too small or the water supply is insufficient, resulting in insufficient water entering the pump. Internally, cavitation is caused in the pump, and cavitation causes a small explosion of the gas mixed in the water to cause overpressure damage, which causes the surface of the piston to wear.

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